I am currently reading "The Fall of the Roman Empire" by Peter Heather and seriously liking it. My second source is "The Roman Emperors" by Michael Grant.
"Fall" says Shapur I built a monument claiming to have destroyed 2 Roman armies, to have slain Gordian III and captured Valerian after defeating his army. Heather says it fits, even says 2 Emperors died. (I think this count includes a later pretender) I have recently seen a large reproduction of Valerian in chains before Shapur at an exhibit in the NYC Metropolitan Museum of Art. Grant agrees that Valerian ended his days a prisoner (and was stuffed and tanned as a souvenir afterwards). But Grant says that Gordian III's army defeated the Sassanians and that Gordian died on campaign, possibly assassinated by his successor Philip the Arab.
I know that monuments can "lie like a bulletin". Kadesh is presented as a glorious Egyptian victory when the resulting treaty indicates a much more indistinct result. Shapur may well have had his spin doctors at work. I would think two annihilating victories and the death of another Emperor would have seeped into my awareness before this, but am always willing to learn. Anyone else have more info about Shapur's wars against Rome?
Last Edit: Jul 18, 2019 16:57:11 GMT by vtsaogames
Gordian III (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gordian_III ) In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian Guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire. Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, and the young emperor and sent a large army East. The Sassanidswere driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperor's security, were at risk. Gaius Julius Priscus and, later on, his own brother Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefects and the campaign proceeded. Around February 244, the Persians fought back fiercely to halt the Roman advance to Ctesiphon. Persian sources claim that a battle occurred (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away from Misiche, at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah) in northern Mesopotamia. Modern scholarship does not unanimously accept this course of the events. One view holds that Gordian died at Zaitha, murdered by his frustrated army, while the role of Philip is unknown. Other scholars, such as Kettenhofen, Hartman and Winter have concluded that Gordian died in battle against the Sasanians.
Sources:- Katrin Herrmann: Gordian III. - Kaiser einer Umbruchszeit. Speyer 2013. Potter, David.S., The Roman Empire At Bay AD 180-392, Routledge, 2004.
 A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010), p.147.  Potter 2004, p.236.  Res Gestae Divi Saporis, 3–4 (translation of Shapur's inscription at Naqsh-i Rustam)  Potter 2004, pp.234,236.  Potter 2004, p.238
Shapur I (from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shapur_I ) Ardashir I had, towards the end of his reign, renewed the war against the Roman Empire, and Shapur I had conquered the Mesopotamian fortresses Nisibis and Carrhae and had advanced into Syria. In 242, the Romans under the father-in-law of their child-emperor Gordian III set out against the Sasanians with "a huge army and great quantity of gold," (according to a Sasanian rock relief) and wintered in Antioch, while Shapur was occupied with subduing Gilan, Khorasan, and Sistan. There the Roman general Timesitheus fought against the Sasanians and won repeated battles, and recaptured Carrhae and Nisibis, and at last routed a Sasanian army at Resaena, forcing the Persians to restore all occupied cities unharmed to their citizens. “We have penetrated as far as Nisibis, and shall even get to Ctesiphon," the young emperor Gordian III, who had joined his father-in-law Timesitheus, exultantly wrote to the Senate. The Romans later invaded eastern Mesopotamia but faced tough resistance from Shapur I returned from the East. Timesitheus died under uncertain circumstances and was succeeded by Philip the Arab. The young emperor Gordian III went to the Battle of Misiche and was either killed in the battle or murdered by the Romans after the defeat. The Romans then chose Philip the Arab as Emperor. Philip was not willing to repeat the mistakes of previous claimants, and was aware that he had to return to Rome to secure his position with the Senate. Philip concluded a peace with Shapur I in 244; he had agreed that Armenia lay within Persia's sphere of influence. He also had to pay an enormous indemnity to the Persians of 500,000 gold denarii. Philip immediately issued coins proclaiming that he had made peace with the Persians (pax fundata cum Persis). However, Philip later broke the treaty and seized lost territory. Shapur I commemorated this victory on several rock relief’s in Pars.
 Iranians in Asia Minor, Leo Raditsa, Cambridge History of Iran: The Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian periods, Vol. 3, ed. Ehsan Yarshater, (Cambridge University Press, 2003), 125.  Shapur I, Shapur Shahbazi, Encyclopaedia Iranica, (July 20, 2002).  Cambridge History of Iran, Volume III, edited by Ehsan Yarshater (professor of Iranian studies, Columbia University, New York)
Post by davidjconstable on Jul 19, 2019 11:25:19 GMT
Sources are a pain in the proverbial, authors copy from other authors, scribes make errors etc.
All you can do is hope for the best, and see what makes sense, after all ones sides rapid fall back is the other sides rout.
If you get hold of original translations on the internet check for updates. The original version of Mons Graupius is available, but contains errors, for instance the number of auxilia units is missing.
The police will tell you if they have one witness things are OK, two witnesses are liable to disagree.
The amount of misinformation is ridiculous, the use of film of German tanks in Russia used to represent France 1940, is a typical example of more modern problems.